The poverty in Indonesia is increasingly complex problem the need for handling and effective special program. At this time the poverty has become chronic problem, so that the government prioritize the handling of poverty synergistically and systemically. The process of solving poverty problems through various forms of special programs launched by the government at this time, should have a goal in reducing social risks, increasing social equality, and reducing poverty sustainable manner, so that the poor can enjoy a life of dignity later.
The ongoing process of government is also facing the same thing, namely poverty alleviation. In dealing with chronic poverty at this time, it is no longer necessary to debate the concepts that will waste energy and time. The poor do not need a rhetorical concept debate and only tend to stop in discourse. The most needed support factor in poverty alleviation today is the mutual agreement on concepts and then implemented maximally. In support of poverty alleviation through the form of the program is required sharpening the program itself because the concept, facilities, and institutional are available completely.
The process of handling poverty problem in Indonesia from time to time is dynamic; it is referring to the comparison of data on depreciation and the increase of poverty rate that comes from Statistics Indonesia (BPS). The following is data on the number and percentage of poor people from 1998-2017.
Based on the above table shows that the development of poverty in Indonesia is still not resolved optimally, it can be seen from the number of poor people in Indonesia in March 2017 reached 27.77 million people. When compared with the number of poor people in September 2016, the number of poor people increased by 6.90 thousand people over a period of six months. Meanwhile, when compared with March 2016, the poor actually decreased by 324.19 thousand people.
The various programs and stimuli having been done by government in the poverty alleviation at this time have not given such a big impact, so that until now the goal of plan of the national development dealing with equity and improvement social prosperity is still maximally unsolved problem. Because the various programs of the poverty alleviation existing before are not maximal, the government make the special program called PKH synergistically and systematically.
PKH is one of special programs made by government through the Ministry of Social Affairs in the assessment of the poverty alleviation. It has begun since 2007 until now. Generally, the meaning of PKH is the program of provision of conditional social assistance to the poor family (KM) which is designated as family beneficiary (KPM). In international version, it is known “Conditional Cash Transfer (CCT)”. It still sustains up to the present because it is very representative in alleviating the poverty problem in Indonesia.
PKH is a poor family-based program, so the economically poor families become primary targets. It is one of national priority programs becoming the centre of excellence by the Ministry of Social Affairs in alleviating the poverty continuously. It needs to obtain appreciations and supports fully from all of the parties having the same interests in order to decrease integrated poverty rate through the existence of it.
Generally, the implementation of PKH has the goal of realizing social welfare for all the poor throughout Indonesia. If based on the embodiment in Pancasila, it is one form of implementation of the fifth principle manifestation, namely: social welfare for all of Indonesian people. Based on the fifth principle of Pancasila, it can be interpreted as representation of social welfare for the poor people to obtain protection and social warranty fairly. The implementation of PKH is also dealing with the realization of Article 34 of the 1945 Constitution, namely the poor and neglected children are maintained by the state. Therefore Article 34 of the 1945 Constitution aims to promote social welfare for the poor provided by the state.
In general, PKH has the goal of providing social transfers for the poor. Then, it has also the goal of decreasing the poverty rate and social inequality by providing intensive care to poor families (KM) to develop in the human resources of their children. According to the guidance book of PKH 2017, it has several great goals of realizing social welfare for all poor people in Indonesia, namely:
- Increasing the standard of living the beneficiary family (KPM) in accessing education, health and social welfare services.
- Reducing expenses and increasing the income of poor families.
- Creating the change of attitude and independence in accessing education, health and social welfare services.
- Reducing the poor and social inequality of the people.
The coverage of recipients of social assistance from year to year has increased significantly. The increase in the number of beneficiaries of social assistance aims to make this assistance can be felt by all the poor in Indonesia, so that later the problem of poverty is resolved thoroughly. The following is the number of coverage of social assistance recipients (PKH) from 2007-2017, namely:
The existence of PKH in Indonesia at this time is very significantly influential in helping government programs to run national development through the movement of coping and poverty alleviation in synergy and systematic. The results obtained directly by the implementation of it in Indonesia are very effective in reducing the number of poverty in Indonesia. This can be seen from the BPS data showing that the poverty rate in 2016 decreased by 0.4 percent; it is because that one-third of the poverty reduction is due to the expansion of it by the end of 2015. whereas for the end of 2017, poverty rate is expected to decrease even more. It is estimated that the decrease of poverty by the end of 2017 is approximately 0.8 percent with the coverage of it beneficiaries amounting to ten million. Therefore, based on the results of evaluation and analysis of the implementation of PKH in Indonesia in the long term can have a huge impact for the process of social development in society.
By: Andrianto Email: firstname.lastname@example.org (The Social Counsellor of PKH of Arjasa District of Sumenep Regency)
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